GERD | Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

At the entrance to your stomach is a valve, which is a ring of muscle called the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). Normally, the LES closes as soon as food passes through it. If the LES doesn't close all the way or if it opens too often, acid produced by your stomach can move up into your esophagus.

This can cause symptoms such as a burning chest pain called heartburn. If acid reflux symptoms happen more than twice a week, you have acid reflux disease, also known as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

These are other common risk factors for acid reflux disease:

  • Hiatal hernia
  • Eating large meals or lying down right after a meal
  • Snacking close to bedtime
  • Eating certain foods, such as citrus, tomato, chocolate, mint, garlic, onions, or spicy or fatty foods
  • Drinking certain beverages, such as alcohol, carbonated drinks, coffee, or tea
  • Taking aspirin, ibuprofen, certain muscle relaxers, or blood pressure medications
  • Being overweight or obese
  • Smoking
  • Being pregnant

What are the symptoms of acid reflux disease?

Common symptoms of acid reflux are:

  • Heartburn - a burning pain or discomfort that may move from your stomach to your abdomen or chest, or even up into your throat
  • Regurgitation - a sour or bitter-tasting acid backing up into your throat or mouth

Other symptoms of acid reflux disease include:

  • Bloating
  • Bloody or black stools or bloody vomiting
  • Burping
  • Dysphagia -- a narrowing of your esophagus, which creates the sensation of food being stuck in your throat
  • Hiccups that don't let up
  • Nausea
  • Weight loss for no known reason
  • Wheezing, dry cough, hoarseness, or chronic sore throat

How is acid reflux disease diagnosed?

It's time to see your doctor if you have acid reflux symptoms two or more times a week or if medications don't bring lasting relief.

Symptoms such as heartburn are the key to the diagnosis of acid reflux disease, especially if lifestyle changes, antacids, or acid-blocking medications help reduce these symptoms.

If these steps don't help, or if you have frequent or severe symptoms, your doctor may order tests to confirm a diagnosis and check for other problems.

You may need one or more tests such as these:

  • Barium swallow (esophagram) can check for ulcers or a narrowing of the esophagus. You first swallow a solution to help structures show up on an X-ray.
  • Esophageal manometry can check the function of the esophagus and lower esophageal sphincter.
  • pH monitoring can check for acid in your esophagus. The doctor inserts a device into your esophagus and leaves it in place for one to two days to measure the amount of acid in your esophagus.
  • Endoscopy can check for problems in your esophagus or stomach. This test involves inserting a long, flexible, lighted tube down your throat. First, the doctor will spray the back of your throat with anesthetic and give you a sedative to make you more comfortable.
  • A biopsy may be taken during endoscopy to check samples of tissue under a microscope for infection or abnormalities.
  • A positive Bernstein test for gastric acid reflux
  • A positive stool guaiac, which may diagnose bleeding from the irritation in the esophagus

For More Information

Consult an EvergreenHealth gastroenterologist for more information on diagnosis and treatment of GERD.