To provide an access site to perform dialysis.
First your doctor performs a complete history and physical exam with attention to finding a good vein in the forearm.
The "best" vein available in the arm is located and a connection is made to a nearby artery. This connection is either made directly or with an intervening plastic graft which is tunneled under the skin. This provides a high flow circuit to "plug into" to perform the dialysis treatment.
Length of Stay: This is an outpatient procedure.
Recovery: The arm should be elevated for the first day or two (longer if swelling persists). There are otherwise essentially no restrictions after surgery.